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     After mid-Qing Dynasty, Tao Zhen gradually evolved into Zhejiang Tan Ci, which had a great variety. Some were local born, like Ningbo Siming Southern Ci, Shaoxing Pinghu Tune, Taizhou Ci Tune and Wenzhou Tan Ci; some were introduced from outside the province, like Suzhou Tan Ci. There were many hits of this type, most of which were the group work of artists or traditional ones passed down from earlier generations. The following were among the few ones created by local talented people: Nine Pine Pavilion by Zhou Shushi of Shaoxing (i.e. The Pearl Pagoda, The Tale of Ten Jade Men), The Picture of Eight Beauties by Jia He Zhu Ren of Jiaxing, Aromatic Balls for Art and Marshal Winners by Zhang Hongtao of Jiaxing, The Sign of Goldfish by Sun Deying of Huzhou, Two Flower-Shaped Pearl Hair Pins by Huang Songyun and Story of Absolute Devotion by Zhou Yingfang of Tongxiang, etc.
     As one of the Three Major Ping Hua (story-telling) in the River South, Hangzhou Ping Hua (story-telling in Hangzhou dialect) inherited much from Jiang Shi (history-telling) of Song and Yuan dynasties, and got well developed in Ming and Qing dynasties. It usually took historical stories as its subject matters and San Shuo (free talk) as its form. While Jiang Shi was seldom preserved in history, Ping Hua could be found in Life of Yue Fei written by Qian Cai of Hangzhou in Qing Dynasty. In the novel, Yue Fei once listened to Ping Hua at the Grand Xiangguosi (royal temple).
     In Ming and Qing dynasties, there were many Jiang Shi programs adapted from the Chinese traditional novel in zhanghui style (a type of novel divided into several chapters with each chapter headed by a couplet giving the gist of its contents). They were closely inter-related and were an indispensable part of each other. As soon as these historical stories got around among people, Shuo Shu (story-telling) artists readily took their themes and reorganized those sporadic and disorderly stories into an integrative one. Further retouched, novels in zhanghui style came into being. In the preface of Heros of the Marshes, The Writer's Publishing House, in 1950's, demonstrated that the two master works in ancient Chinese literature - Heros of the Marshes written by Shi Nai'an of Qiantang, and The Romance of the Three Kingdoms written by Luo Guanzhong of Hangzhou (still disputed) - both experienced the above mentioned stages: from folk stories, to Shuo Shu artists' scripts and last to the writer's processing.
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