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    At the turn from Ming Dynasty to Qing Dynasty, River South economy was prosperous with the development of commodity economy. Zhejiang handcraft industry flourished day by day. Though it had a large variety, all works bore a fresh, delicate and magnificent feature that is unique of the watery region in the River South.
    In Qing Dynasty, silk produced by Hangzhou enjoyed great popularity home and abroad. The silk production included Hang-Luo, Hang-Duan, Hang-Fang and Hang Luo. Some of Hang-Duan (satin produced in Hangzhou) were white and plain, some were patterned with flowers, and some woven in gold threads to make flowers, which looked really splendid. The world famous Ten Scenic Spots Of West Lake showed the advanced skills of Hangzhou silk industry workers in Qing Dynasty. The stone carving of Qingtian made good use of the special local Yela stone. Based on the original shape and color of the stone, the artists worked on it with great care to give full life to the material. A typical traditional product was 'Grape Mountain' with great amount of crystal-like grapes in leafy profusion. The woodcarving of Dongyang mainly got its theme subject from history or folk stories. It was distinctive as the composition was always fully patterned with flowers. The red-gold wood carving of Ningbo was grounded with red paint and appliqued with gold leaves, so it looked magnificent and dazzling. It emphasized both carving and painting, its representative works were Qian Gong Bed and Wan Gong Sedan-Chair. The latter is kept by Zhejiang Museum. It is exquisitely carved with remarkable skills. There are more than 400 figures and uncountable flowers and birds. These together constitutes auspicious scene of the blessed new born baby as well as the scenes in operas like The Tale Of The Thornwood Hairpins and The Lost Jade Bracelet. Complemented with glass and glass pictures, it is indeed of wonderful workmanship excelling nature. In addition to these, Zhejiang's boxwood carving, Hangzhou's embroidery, Ou-Su, Huangyan's Fan-Huang, Pujiang's paper-cut, Yueqing's paper-cut, Shenxian's bamboo art ware and Hongxiang's blue printed calico were all very famous.
    At first people all over the country emphasized only imitation of model handwritings of ancient works. It was not until the mid-Qing Dynasty when stele inscription sprang up was the calligraphy of Qing Dynasty rescued from a desperate situation. Under the influence of Qianjia School's tenets to restore ancient ways, many calligraphers began working on the seal script, the official script and Bei-Bei (northern stele script) with all concentration.
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