Yuan Dynasty, the silk industry was the most thriving among
all handicrafts of Zhejiang. 'Dao Luo' made in Pujinag, Jinhua
was listed among articles of tribute. The transparent brocade
made in Chongde, Jiaxing was vivid in pattern design and delicate
in weaving. The Yuan government established a silk bureau in
Hangzhou to expand the official silk industry for more delicate
tributes such as damask silk, gauze, Gesi (K's-ssy) tapestry
with cut designs and silk clothes with grains. It was popular
to weave gold thread into brocade in Yuan Dynasty, called 'Na
Shi Shi'. The Hangzhou silk bureau was famous for its artisans
specializing in the production of extremely fine'Na Shi Shi'
and 'Qie Jin Li (velvet-cut fabrics)'. Represented by Longquan
(Dragon Spring) Kiln works, the celadon industry of Zhejiang
held a very important position in Yuan Dynasty. Longquan was
at the peak of its productivity with the kiln kept expanding.
The characteristics were that most of its works were tall, big
and heavy. Some of the vases were as tall as 1 meter, yet still
normative in shape and pure in glaze color due to its superb
molding and baking skills. At the time, ornaments such as applique,
printing, stipple and Lu-Tai (showing the roughcast) were in
the vogue. Jiaxing became the important base for lacquer production
and renowned lacquerers came forth in large numbers. For example,
carved lacquerware artisans Zhang Cheng and Yang Mao and gold-or-silver
inlaid lacquerware artisan Peng Baojun were all born in Xitang,
Jiaxing. The carved lacquers made by Zhang Cheng and Yang Mao
were welcome articles for collection both home and abroad.
were five famous printing workshops in Hangzhou in Yuan Dynasty.
The Pictorial Biographies of Chaste Women (Da De version) was
of high appreciation value with neat and refined woodcut pictures.
The picture in the head page of Liang's Imperial Confess (in
Xixia language) was engraved by the celebrated carver of Hangzhou
Yu Shengkan. The head page picture in Miao Fa Lian Hua Jing
(a Buddhism scripture) was done mainly by Gu Fengxiang and was
a lot more vivid than the one made in Southern Song Dynasty.
Xuanhe Ancient Learning Pictorials had large pictures with delicate
carvings. Judging from the print mark on it, it was engraved
by Chen Sheng, a famous carver at the turn of Song and Yuan
Dynasty and commuted between Suzhou and Hangzhou. As there are
few woodcut prints left of Yuan Dynasty, these are important
materials for the country's print history.
and garden design of Yuan Dynasty gave birth to the following
representative works: Zhang Yu's Jun Ge (mushroom pavilion),
Zhang Tianying's Mei Yin (plum retreat), Yang Yu's Zhu Xi Shang
Ju (hill-side house with bamboos), Xianyu Shu' Cottage on Mt.
Xiangu, and Longhuashan Villa on Guan Yun Shi. The Freeing Crane
Pavilion on the Solitary Hill by West Lake was first built in
Yuan Dynasty. On the Wu Hill was a pavilion called 'Such Beautiful
Sceneries' The Phoenix Temple located in Yangbatou on Zhongshan
Road, Hangzhou, which was first built in Tang Dynasty and rebuilt
by A Laoding in Renzhong's Reign of Yuan Dynasty, has a place
of worship dated back to 1341 and was the oldest temple of Hangzhou.
It is a brick girder-less hall. On the dome, the spires are
the overlapping octagonal eaves with single-layered hexagonal
eaves beside them, which is a distinct feature of Chinese traditional
architectures combined with Islamic architectures. There are
colored pictures under the dome. The only ancient city gate
on water left in Hangzhou, Feng Shen Shui Men (Phoenix Hill
water city gate) was built in 1359 when Zhang Shicheng occupied
here. In the middle of every arch top is carved the twining
dragons guarding the stone lock.