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Zhejiang Literature in Modern Times
    The concept of modern times refers to the period from the late Qing Dynasty to the early Republic of China years, i.e. from the year 1840 to 1919 when the political and social situations were in constant turbulence. The Zhejiang Literature had been seeking for the new changes and appeared rather complicated.
    As for traditional poem, the Qiantang writer Gong Zizhen had great influences in Zhejiang and even the whole China. He imitated the Jin Nong (one of the Eight Eccentrics of Yangzhou) whose poems were imposing, and called for the enlightenment to people's thoughts. The Tongguang Style representative Shen Cengzhi's poems were deep and clear. The Shaoxing writer Li Ciming refused to imitate any ancient poet's style and created his own unique style in writing reading notes. The Hangzhou native Xia Zenyou and Jiang Zhiyou were the exponentials of the revolution in the poem circle. The Yuhang writer Zhang Binglin's early poems like Present to Zhou Rong in Jail were widely spread among the people. His essays followed the opinions of Gong Zizhen as being abundant in contents and complicated in composition. Qiu Jin's Poems were sad, deep, frank and always with a strong feeling of patriotism and her prose were vernacular and easy to understand like Warnings to My Brethren and Respectful talks to My Sisters. Qiu Jin's close friends Xu Zihua and Xu Yunhua were a couple of sisters from the South Association who were also full of patriotic feelings. During this period, the Zhenhai native Yao Xian and Haining native Wang Guowei were representatives of the Ci Poems. Wang Guowei's book The World's Ci Poems was an important work on Ci poetics. Besides, the Huzhou poet Zhu Xiaozang was one of the Four Ci Masters in Late Qing Dynasty. The female writer from Hangzhou, Chen Cuina was skilled in composing Ci poems and tunes. She wrote such novels and plays as Cui Lou Wen Cao, Cui Lou Yin Cao and Sketches of the Ci and Tunes of Cui Yin Lou and became an important figure in the female literature history of China.
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